Development status and Prospect of the hottest bio

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Current situation and Prospect of biosensor technology

since Clark and Lyon put forward the idea of biosensor in the 1960s, the development of biosensors has a history of more than 40 years. As an interdisciplinary subject developed between life science and information science, biosensors have been attached great importance to and widely used in the aspects of technology, environmental monitoring, food engineering, clinical medicine, military and military medicine. With the further informatization of society, biosensors will be more and more widely used

I. definition of biosensor and review of its development history

as a biology, one of the most basic characteristics is that it can respond to various external stimuli. The reason why it can do so is that, first of all, organisms can feel various external stimulus signals and convert these signals into signals that can be received and processed by the information processing system in vivo. For example, people can convert external light, sound, temperature and other chemical and physical signals into signals that can be received and processed by information processing systems such as the nervous system in the human body through sensory organs such as eyes, ears, nose, tongue and body. In the modern and future information society, if the information processing system wants to respond to various changes in nature and society, it first needs to convert various external information into signals that can be received and processed by the information processing unit (i.e. computer) in the information system

biosensor is defined as "a device that uses immobilized biomolecules in combination with transducers to detect environmental chemicals in vivo or in vitro or generate response after specific interaction with them". A biosensor consists of two key parts. One is a molecular recognition component from biological molecules, tissue parts or individual cells. This component is the signal receiving or generating part of the biosensor. The other part belongs to hardware instrument components, mainly physical signal conversion components. Therefore, how to separate, purify or even design and synthesize specific biological active materials by biochemical methods and combine them with accurate and fast response physical transducers to form a biosensor reaction system is the main purpose of studying biosensors

as mentioned above, biosensors can be called tissue sensors, cell sensors, enzyme sensors, etc. according to the life substances used in their receptors, they can also be named thermal sensors, optical sensors, insulin sensors, etc. according to the monitored physical, chemical or biological quantities, and they can also be collectively called immune sensors according to their uses. Drug sensors, etc. There is no essential difference between the signal converter in biosensor and the traditional converter. For example, electrochemical electrodes, field effect tubes, thermal devices, piezoelectric devices, photoelectric devices and other devices can be used as signal converters in biosensors. According to different signal converters, biosensors can also be classified, such as piezoelectric crystal biosensors, field effect tube biosensors, etc

the development of biosensors. Since Clark and Lyon put forward the concept of enzyme electrode in 1962, YSI company has actively invested in the commercialization development and production in the 1970s. The first generation of biosensors was put into the medical examination market in 1979. The earliest commodity was enzyme electrode for blood glucose test. The successful listing of YSI company is closely related to the vigorous development of the electronic information industry in the 1980s, and has led to a boom in the research and development of biosensors. Medisense continued to focus on the research and development of the first generation enzyme electrode. In 1988, it became famous for successfully developing mediator molecules to accelerate response time and enhance test sensitivity. With pen 2 and company 2 portable small biosensor products, it immediately captured more than 70% of the first generation product market after its listing in 1988, becoming the leader of the biosensor industry. The second generation of biosensors is defined as using antibodies or receptor proteins as molecular recognition components, and the selection of transducers is more diversified, such as field effect semiconductor (FET), optical fiber (FOS), piezotransistor (PZ), surface acoustic wave (SAW), etc. Although the second-generation biosensor has attracted extensive research and development interest since the mid-1980s, it is generally believed that it has not yet reached the application stage of medical examination, and it is expected that the relevant technology will mature before the end of the century. At present, the second generation of biosensor products can be called Biacore and bialite, which were launched by Pharmacia in 1991

pharmacia successfully developed surface plasma resonance (SPR) technology in 1985. Using this optical characteristic, it developed a real-time biological sensing instrument that can detect the interaction between biomolecules at low concentrations from g/ml to g/ml. The third generation of biosensors are positioned to be more portable, automated, and real-time

II. Classification of biosensors

biosensor microbial electronic products. In order to obtain the best signal transmission, the immobilized biological components are usually closely connected with the signal conversion components. Basically, according to the different mode of signal generation, the biosensor area can be divided into two main types:

1 Bioaffinity sensors

when bioaffinity binding occurs between the fixed biological component and the analyte to be determined, the shape of biomolecules will change and/or physical quantities such as charge, thickness, mass, heat or optics will change. This kind of biosensor based on molecular recognition binding type includes immune sensor, chemical receptor sensor, etc. its analysis can be hormone, protein, carbohydrate, antigen or antibody, and the corresponding receptor can be hormone receptor, dye, lectins, antibody or antigen, etc

2. Biocatalytic biosensors

the signal detection of such sensors does not lie in the stage of molecular recognition binding, and when the fixed partition reacts with the substance to be measured, biochemical metabolites are generated, which are displayed as electronic signals after the specific metabolites are detected by specific electrodes. The most familiar enzyme electrode is the first generation biosensor. At present, the two main research and development directions of this kind of biosensor are (1) use enzyme conjugates to directly remove them (I don't know whether you have internal 6-angle screw conjugates), circulating enzymes and a series of enzymes to combine biosensors, (2) use microbial cells or animal and plant tissue slices or permeable cells as molecular recognition components

III. current main application fields of biosensors

1 Fermentation industry

because there are often interfering substances to enzymes in the fermentation process, and the fermentation broth is often not clear and transparent, it is not suitable for spectral and other methods. The application of microbial sensor is very likely to eliminate interference, and is not limited by the turbidity of fermentation broth. At the same time, because the fermentation industry is a large-scale production, microbial sensors have great advantages because of their low cost and simple equipment. Therefore, the microbial sensor with low cost, simple equipment, not limited by the turbidity of fermentation broth, and can eliminate the interference of interfering substances in the fermentation process has been widely used in the fermentation industry

2. Food industry

biosensors can be used to detect the content of nutrients and harmful ingredients in food, and the freshness of food. For example, the developed enzyme electrode biosensor can be used to analyze the glucose content in Baijiu, apple juice, jam and honey, so as to measure the maturity of fruits. An amperometric sulfur dioxide enzyme electrode using sulfite oxidase as sensitive material can be used to determine sulfite content in food. In addition, biosensors can also be used to determine the application of pigments and emulsifiers

3. In the medical field, biosensors are also playing a more and more important role in the medical field: in clinic, biosensors such as immunosensors are used to detect various chemical components in body fluids, so as to provide a basis for doctors' diagnosis; In military medicine, the timely and rapid detection of biological toxins is an effective measure to defend biological weapons. Biosensors have been used to monitor many kinds of bacteria, viruses and their toxins. Biosensors can also be used to measure various amino acids such as acetic acid, lactic acid, lactose, uric acid, urea, antibiotics, glutamic acid, as well as various carcinogens and mutagens

According to coherent statistics

4 Environmental monitoring

environmental protection has attracted worldwide attention, and the market of professional instruments for environmental monitoring is also growing. At present, a considerable number of biosensors have been put into the monitoring of the content of various pollutants in the air and water. In developed countries such as Britain, France, Germany, Spain and Sweden, biological cold light biosensors have been used in the process of water quality detection. Biosensors have the advantages of rapid and continuous monitoring. It is believed that biosensors will be widely used in the future

IV. prospects for the future

biosensors are a multi-disciplinary high-tech field. With the rapid development of Bioscience, information science, material science and other related disciplines, the development of biosensors will have the following new characteristics:

1 The future biosensors will further involve various fields such as medical care, food detection, environmental monitoring and fermentation industry. At present, one of the important contents in the research of biosensors is to study the biosensors that can replace the biological sense organs such as vision, hearing and touch, that is, bionic sensors. Moreover, with the progress of micro processing technology and nano technology, biosensors will continue to be miniaturized. The emergence of various portable biosensors makes people face

2. A higher degree of intelligence

future biosensors will be perfectly and closely integrated with computers, which can automatically collect and process data, provide results more scientifically and accurately, and realize sampling, sample injection and finally form an automated detection system. At the same time, chip technology will increasingly enter the field of sensors to realize the integration and integration of detection systems

however, to make biosensors accepted by the market as soon as possible, the following conditions must be met:

(1) sufficient sensitivity and accuracy

(2) simple operation

(3) it is cheap and easy to carry out mass production

(4) quality monitoring during production

(5) long service life

it is believed that with the further improvement of some key technologies (such as immobilization technology), the deepening of people's understanding of organisms, and the continuous development of various disciplines, biosensors will certainly do more in the future after the above preliminary accuracy correction of experimental machines. (end)

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